Restaurant and retail franchisors: could this be you in 2014?

January 3rd, 2014

The case of Wojcik v. Interarch, Inc., currently pending in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois against the fast casual restaurant franchisor Saladworks, LLC, contains a factual scenario that should serve as a valuable reminder for existing franchisors who are updating their Franchise Disclosure Document (“FDD”) for use in 2014, for companies beginning the offer of franchise rights, and for prospective franchisees who are investigating opportunities.   Bottom Line: Franchisors need to be careful not to underestimate site development costs, ongoing operating costs, and the challenges of opening locations in geographic areas not familiar with their brands. 

During 2011, one of the plaintiffs, David Wojcik of suburban Chicago, investigated development of a Saladworks franchise restaurant.   Saladworks is based in suburban Philadelphia, and the bulk of Saladworks locations are within 250 miles of Philadelphia.  When Mr. Wojcik attended Saladworks’ “Discovery Day” to learn more about the franchise, Saladworks’ executives took him to their “Gateway” location, which they described as being typical in terms of physical appearance and menu offerings.   They also told him that Saladworks’ designated commercial real estate firm Site Development, Inc.  (“SDI”) and a designated architecture firm would help Wojcik find a location and design his restaurant.

After reviewing the FDD and going to “discovery day,” Mr. Wojcik convinced his wife Denise that they should sign the franchise agreement and that she should invest $90,000 that they used to purchase a single franchise license plus multi-unit development rights in suburban Chicago.  However, it cost the Wojciks substantially more to open their first Saladworks location than the estimated initial investment cost stated in the FDD, and the business failed within six months – both opening and closing during 2012.

The court decision, denying Saladwork’s and SDI’s motions to dismiss for the most part, is interesting on a couple of legal grounds, including the court’s holding that Saladworks could have violated several franchise agreement provisions by failing to “exercise its discretion in good faith,” and also holding that the site selection firm SDI assumed legal duties to the franchisee not to misrepresent its qualifications to provide site selection advice in suburban Chicago.  However, more instructive are the failed franchisee’s factual allegations concerning representations made to induce its franchise purchase, including those in the FDD.  As the court wrote:

“According to Wojcik, Saladworks misrepresented, among other things, that:

A. “Saladworks had the experience and expertise to support a franchisee’s introduction of its brand in the Chicago market and that Saladworks would be committed to success in this market”;

B. “Wojcik’s Illinois restaurants would basically replicate what he saw on discovery day at the Gateway Restaurant”;

C. InterArch and SDI “would be . . . strong positive factor[s]” in helping him develop his restaurants;

D. Wojcik “would receive a `standard location,'” thus making the financial information Saladworks included in its FDD for franchised restaurants at “standard locations” relevant and meaningful for him.

Wojcik also alleges that Saladworks omitted a number of material facts, including the following:

(1) Saladworks based the projected construction costs disclosed in its FDD on “site locations that did not require any substantial changes in use, e.g., that . . . previously [had] a restaurant on the site. . . .”

(2) “[W]ithin any market there can be material differences between particular sites that will substantially affect the performance of any particular franchise, such that, by inducing franchisees to believe that he or she would receive a `standard location,'” the franchisee was being misled and deceived into believing that SDI and Saladworks had developed some sort of process that eliminated the risk of poor site selection. . . .”

(3) InterArch—Saladworks’ designated architect—”had insufficient familiarity with the local building codes of Schaumburg or the other Illinois communities in which Wojcik was planning to build and InterArch was not licensed in Illinois.”

(4) “[The Saladworks] brand was most successful in a core market area, which included the area covered by an approximate 250-mile radius of Philadelphia. . . . [but] beyond the core market area, most of [Saladworks’] franchises were substantially under-performing in relationship to those that were located within the core market area,” thus making Saladworks’ disclosures about the financial performance of franchised restaurants at “standard locations” deceptive and misleading to a franchisee in Illinois.

(5) The two restaurants for which Saladworks supplied information about average operating costs obtained free labor from new franchisees in training, thus making the average operating costs Saladworks disclosed in its FDD materially misleading.

(6) Saladworks “did not intend to do `brand development advertising’ in Illinois,” and thus, a franchisee in Illinois would receive no benefit from its required contributions to Saladworks’ “Brand Development Fund.”

(7) InterArch, Saladworks’ designated architecture firm, charged a $5,000 “supervision fee,” in addition to its design fee, if the franchisee chose to have InterArch supervise construction of the restaurant.”

This case decision was in the context of Saladworks’ and SDI’s motions to dismiss (the architect, InterArch, had already settled), and many of the allegations recited above may not survive a motion for summary judgment on the failed franchisee’s misrepresentation claims.  For example, as the court also points out, the franchise agreement specifically warned the franchisee that its “Brand Development Fund” contributions did not have to be used to promote the franchisee’s restaurant (as opposed to other System restaurants), and a franchisee in a new region typically should negotiate that point.

However, some issues that renewing franchisors should carefully consider are:

(i) Do franchises outside of your core geographic area struggle, as compared to those in the core?  If so, your Item 19 Financial Performance Representation probably needs to highlight those differences and conspicuously warn prospects considering a franchise that would operate outside of “the core.”

(ii) If your Item 19 disclosure includes operating costs disclosures, are those impacted at all by the use of trainees in place of paid staff?

(iii) if you feel it is necessary to designate a commercial real estate company or architecture firm, be careful about how you promote their abilities, and consider (a) requiring the real estate firm to work with a local firm with whom it would share its fees, and (b) for states where the architect is not licensed, consider allowing the franchisee to select alternative architects upon payment of  a modest review fee to your designated designers.

(iv)  Are your Leasehold Improvement or construction estimates in Item 7 based on certain positive assumptions?  If so, carefully disclose them, and consider whether the high estimate should not include those optimistic assumptions.

From the point of view of a prospective restaurant or retail franchisee, the lesson of this case is to show the kinds of issues you should carefully consider in your due diligence before purchasing a franchise.   While litigation may help you recover if the franchisor is not completely truthful, better to figure it out beforehand!

How Can You Know If Your Business Is Ready To Franchise?

January 2nd, 2014

David Cahn

David Cahn

Do you think you’re ready to make your business a franchise? Ready to become the next Subway or Jiffy Lube? In this column, I’ll outline some key factors to consider as you make the important decision of whether and when to franchise your business methods. 

Becoming the owner of a franchised business (as the “franchisee”) can be a great option for someone who has entrepreneurial skills and motivation but doesn’t want to start a business “from scratch.”  But before you take the plunge and dive headlong into becoming a franchisor, it’s important to keep in mind the most important factors that will determine your success.

Signs That Your Business Is Ready To Franchise

The first hurtle to “franchise-ability” is whether your business has been consistently profitable over a substantial period of time.  Typically, if your business is in a mature industry, such as food service or printing, you need to have been in business at least three years and have a steady record of profits. You should also have multiple separate locations to disprove that notion that it’s only a local success.

A different rule applies to “new” industry or niche businesses. If a business presents a truly unique and innovative operating method, and has shown some profitability, then it may be in the business’ best interests to franchise quickly to gain regional recognition as the leader for that niche. For example, a fitness company that offers a new type of program and that has been developed locally should try to get into the market quickly and establish themselves as the dominant brand for that niche.

The second hurtle is having developed a business system that you can teach to franchisees and can be easily replicated in other locations.  Disclosures that must be given to prospective franchisees under U.S. and state laws have essentially mandated that a franchisor prepare some sort of “Operations Manual” to loan to active franchisees, and also that it plan out a new franchisee training program in advance of offering franchises.   Therefore, before franchising you need to carefully document both how to develop and operate the business you want to franchise, and also plan how you will train others to replicate your methods.

Another important question is whether you have a business name and/or logo that can obtain and maintain trademark protection.  Having a “strong Mark” for both marketing and legal purposes is very important to the long-term success of a franchise system, and if that factor is not present then you should carefully consider whether to re-brand and obtain trademark registration in advance of franchising.

Last but not least, will your prospective franchisees be able to obtain the capital that they need to open and operate franchises?  A prospective franchisor needs to talk with its bankers to develop a profile for a suitable franchisee that will have sufficient net worth (both total and liquid) to be able to personally qualify for financing.  You should then obtain informal commitments from financial institutions to finance candidates who have meet those qualifications and secure suitable locations or geographic territories from which to operate the franchise. You should consider what financing, if any, you would be willing to provide to new franchisees as part of a package to help them obtain a bank loan.

Franchising vs. Other Methods of Expansion

The main advantage that franchising has over expanding a business on your own is that you get to invest other people’s time, skills, and money to growing the business instead of borrowing against your business and personal assets or granting stock to outside investors. Having franchisees allow a business to play off of a diverse pool of talent that may attract different types of people to the business.

Many businesses have found that, by granting franchises, they can recruit talented individuals who will be driven to tremendous lengths to make their business a success. While incentives to the managers of company-owned remote locations can drive good short-term results, franchisees who risk their net worth on the enterprise have the ultimate incentive to develop the businesses for long-term profitability.

As the franchisor, your business will be less likely to be held liable for any claims of personal injury or employment discrimination that that may happen on the premises of a franchised unit, as opposed to one opened with borrowed or equity capital. Making sure that this liability shield is effective takes careful planning, but when properly executed it is a substantial benefit of franchising.

It’s not all good news however. After outside lenders or investors are repaid, company units may yield more profit to the brand founder than franchises. It can be more difficult and costly to terminate a misbehaving franchisee than a location manager. Finally, company owned units located near franchises could suffer revenue losses through competition with the franchises.

So You’ve Decided to Franchise…

With all of that in mind, and you’ve decided that your business is ready to franchise, there are a few things you should do before looking for your first franchisee.

  1. Develop the operating manual and training plan. Owners often create these items with the help of a consultant and with overall legal guidance.
  2. Put money aside. A thoughtful and responsible business owner should have at least $100,000 available for franchising purposes, including legal, development of training programs and operations manuals, and advertising for franchisees (both creative and placement). Also, a shrewd businessman might put away that money, spend half on the aforementioned items, and keep the rest on hand to show sufficient capitalization to obtain state franchise registration on favorable terms.
  3. Be prepared to do some hand-holding. Business owners that are looking to franchise need to be realistic when they look at the additional operating costs of getting a franchise up and running. They must spend money and time recruiting and supporting the new franchisees. Time away from the core-business means money for managerial costs for the original businesses that form the “prototype” for the franchises.

Conclusion

Potential franchisors need to accept that franchising successfully will require some short term sacrifices in terms of time and money. Done correctly and thoroughly can mean the growth of your business to larger regional or national markets. Improperly, underfunded, and rushed could mean the loss of the business entirely. Early investment in franchise resources and assistance will give the business a better chance at success and growth within your industry.